Tour Guide: Job Description

What is a tour guide?

A tour guide is a professional or a person that familiarize tourist with the history, function, and customs of a particular region or establishment. Even though clients are typically foreigners on vacation, virtually any person can attend a tour.

Tour guides work in the travel industry, giving guided tours to groups of people or visitors. Normally, they are experts on history and destinations. They offer their tour groups interesting or enlightening information about historical sites, museums, scenic locations, nature attractions, and other travel destinations. 

Tour guides may give walking tours, hiking tours, bus tours, or even lead river tours on a boat.

What does a tour guide do?

The work of a tour guide depends on their location and employer. If they are self-employed, they will usually give tours of publicly accessible travel destinations like national parks or nature attractions. Those who are employed by a visitor’s corporation offer tours of cities, industrial locations, or other points of interest. The three main areas of specialization within the guiding industry are historical tour guiding, corporate tour guiding, and nature tour guiding.

Tour guiding responsibilities

  • Greeting and welcoming visitors to the tour.
  • Informing customers about the itinerary for each tour.
  • Planning itineraries in accordance with weather forecast and the length of each tour.
  • Scheduling visits and purchasing tickets to museums, galleries, protected parks, and other attractions ahead of time, if required.
  • Planning alternative activities in the event that cancellation, closures, or weather prohibit you from attending scheduled events.
  • Gathering and maintaining the requisite equipment for each tour.
  • Familiarizing oneself with the layout and history of the region or establishment in which you will be working.
  • Familiarizing customers with each region or establishment.
  • Directing customers to other, non-competing services that might be of interest to them.


  • High school diploma or equivalent.
  • Prior experience as a tour guide is an advantage.
  • Capacity to stand and walk for extended period of time.
  • Adherence to prescribed safety codes.
  • Excellent conversational skills with a knack for storytelling.
  • Personable, humors disposition.
  • Outstanding organizational, time management, and improvisational skills.
  • Passionate about travelling.
  • Ability to work during evenings and on weekends.

What is a workplace of a tour guide like?

Tour guides work in a variety of environments and conditions. Museum tour guides, for instance, work indoors all year-around, while nature tour guide work outside and subject to the effects of climate and weather conditions. Typically, a tour guide’s work week is very structured, though they may work more or less than 40 hours. Since they work with travel industry, many tour guides lead tours on weekend. Some of them are employed for seasonal and temporary positions.

Wrap up

Regardless of the tour guide’s specialization, some fundamental responsibilities apply to all positions. Their primary responsibility is to ensure that everyone on the tour is as safe as possible. They will monitor the group’s activities to ensure that everyone follows the safety regulations of the site or guide. In some cases, they may be required to provide visitors with first-aid or emergency services. Itineraries are usually planned by tour guides as well. They will conduct extensive research prior to giving the tour and will be prepared and organized for every step of the process, from greeting visitors upon arrival to arranging transportation between locations. Guides must also perform clerical duties, collect fees, and, in some cases, promote gift shops and sell souvenirs.

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Full Stack Developer: Description

Full stack development refers to web development taking place in either the front and back-ends of a website.

What is a Full-Stack Developer?

Full stack developers are among the most highly regarded professionals in web development, but what exactly is a full stack developer? They are web developers who are equipped to work with the front and back ends of a digital entity, which means they are usually skilled in aspects of computer programming, user experience (UX) design, project management, and, in many cases, client communication. Because of this specialized hybridization, there is a greater demand for full stack developers in a variety of professional capacities.

The term “full stack” refers to the entire front and back-end architecture of a website or application. Full stack professionals, as one might expect, can address both sides of the proverbial equation.

Understanding the role

Full stack developers combine front end and back-end web development skills, tackling a wide range of tasks in the creation and upkeep of a digital entity (e.g., app, web page). The position requires adaptability, innovative thinking, and a combination of technical programming knowledge and high-level client communication.
However, before they can apply their diverse skill set, aspiring full stack developers must first understand the difference between front end and back-end development, becoming proficient in both fields to properly balance their array of responsibilities:

Front end development

Front end developers are in charge of the user-facing elements of a website or application. These may include user interface (UI) elements, browser compatibility, and overall visual presentation. In other words, these developers design everything a user sees and feels while navigating a website or app. To make projects more engaging and interactive, front-end developers use programming languages such as JavaScript, HTML, and CSS.

Back-end development

Meanwhile, back-end developers look after the digital foundation of the website or application. Consider them a concert stage crew working behind the scenes. Back-end developers manage critical underlying components that influence the front-end presentation and usability of the site, such as database maintenance and debugging. They also collaborate with front-end developers to conduct usability testing and to strengthen foundational code as needed.

Back End vs. Front End Development

Back-end developers work within the underlying digital framework of a website or application, maintaining databases, writing and debugging foundational code, and addressing factors that contribute to speed and efficiency. Front end developers, on the other hand, are in charge of a digital entity’s client-facing properties, such as its user interface (UI), browser compatibility, and overall aesthetic presentation.


  • Have knowledge of the front-end and any related frameworks.
  • Have knowledge of back-end design and development, including at least one framework associated with the language of choice.
  • Knowledge of database and server administration is required for website functionality.
  • Ensure that all platforms, including Windows, MacOS, and Linux, run smoothly.
  • Meet both technical and consumer demands.
  • Create APIs that are responsible for data retrieval.

The full stack developer role is dependent on a wide range of skills, many of which require at least some proficiency in various key programming languages. That being said, aspiring full stack developers should learn the following skills and languages:

Skills and languages for full stack developer


Python is a valuable programming language for those interested in full stack development because it is one of the leading programming languages for modern back-end web development. The language is popular not only for its versatility, but also for its ease of use. Indeed, according to Stack Overflow’s 2020 Developer Survey, Python was the most desired programming language by a wide margin, owing to its support for a wide range of programming styles and its efficiency in data visualization.


JavaScript is another consistently valuable coding skill in full stack development, ranking second only to Python among Stack Overflow’s surveyed developers. JavaScript, like Python, is regarded for its dynamic array of uses, which in web development generally apply to the depth and quality of a web page — specifically, by allowing developers to make complex style declarations, support high-level math calculations, and reference content from other web pages. Sites would be more static, less animated, and ultimately less engaging without JavaScript.


HTML (HyperText Markup Language) is a popular coding language in web development. As a markup language, it refers to how web pages are linked together and is primarily used to inform a web browser of how to display the elements of a web page via tags. For example, the tag represents the displayed header of a digital document, which may contain other tags related to information such as a title or relevant link.


CSS (Cascading Style Sheets), along with JavaScript and HTML, is one of the most commonly used coding languages in front end development, making it an asset to the full stack role. CSS, specifically the color- and style-based code added to HTML structural elements, is primarily used to create an aesthetically pleasing design. A background-color: light-blue element, for example, would change the site’s user-facing background to light blue.


SQL (Structured Query Language) is a database language that is widely used in back-end development. The language is primarily used to manage and update records, as well as to access and modify databases. Because almost every website uses back-end data storage, SQL provides a solid foundation in database-oriented literacy required in full stack development — particularly for software designed to house sensitive data.


Rust is also a popular programming language for web development, ranking as the “most loved” language in Stack Overflow’s 2020 survey. Rust is commonly used to improve the speed, parallelism, and inherent memory safety of a web page, and it is also valued for its versatility. These include the creation of game engines, the development of operating systems, and the implementation of browser components.


Java consistently ranks highly in top programming language rankings and surveys. This general-purpose language is primarily used in back-end web development, but it can be applied to a wide range of software types. Full stack developers must learn languages like Java because they can be applied to a wide range of scenarios in application development, maintenance, and conceptualization.

Web Architecture

Website architecture entails the planning and design of a website’s technical, functional, and visual components (before it is deployed). It is used by web designers and developers to design and develop websites. As a result, full stack development and web architecture go hand in hand — full stack developers must understand how back-end data is structured in order to efficiently build a strong cohesive product, as well as how to separate files and where to perform specific computational tasks.

Critical Thinking

Web development is almost synonymous with high-level problem solving, which implies that developers are typically expected to be skilled critical thinkers. A development project can frequently present a variety of challenges, ranging from software limitations to back-end bugs, and developers should be prepared to navigate these issues with a comprehensive, solution-oriented mindset, improvising and attempting unconventional approaches as needed. Such thinking not only helps a project come to fruition, but it can also drive the collective web development team’s growth, establishing a standard of tenacity and innovation for future projects.


Patience goes hand in hand with critical thinking in web development. When troubleshooting and testing experimental ideas, developers should remain calm and proactive (both with themselves and with team cohorts). A solution to a complex problem is not always obvious, and a little patience can go a long way toward sustaining these efforts and achieving a breakthrough. This skill is especially important for new developers, who often require more time to establish themselves in the industry.


Communication is another important soft skill that full stack developers must have in order to do their job well. Developers may need to coordinate with clients, coders, domain managers, and other internal departments on any given day as they navigate their own responsibilities — and because some of these individuals may not be as tech-savvy, clarity and transparency are essential. Web development is frequently a collaborative effort, and cultivating this mindset can position new full stack developers and their cohorts for long-term success.

What are the benefits a full stack developer brings in?

A full stack engineer brings to the business all there is needed, end-to-end project development and testing in one place and in minimum of time.

How to become a full stack developer?

Despite the fact that full stack development is a high-level, multifaceted field, aspiring developers can master the necessary knowledge without prior experience. Furthermore, for those interested in learning full stack skills, there are several time-tested educational pathways that commonly boil down to bootcamp courses, applicable college degrees, and self-taught learning options.

Coding Bootcamps

Coding bootcamps are one of the most effective ways to learn front and back end development skills. These courses provide the opportunity to learn web development through hands-on experience, utilizing flexible, intensive curricula to prepare students for a career in full stack development. No two bootcamps are alike, which reflects both their personalization and level of detail in a particular concentration.

College Degrees

Traditional college degrees, like bootcamp courses, provide the opportunity to learn industry-specific skills — but through relevant degree paths. Aspiring full stack developers may pursue degrees in fields such as computer science or graphic design, giving them the opportunity to learn about web development as well as the broader industries that support it.

Self-Taught Options

Self-taught options may be a viable option for those who want to learn with less structure and more autonomy. These options could include free online courses, educational apps, and other self-guided methods for learning web development, the majority of which allow learners to hone their skills at their own pace and on their own schedule.

Check our course.

Wrap up

A full-stack developer can do almost anything. If you enjoy being creative and problem solvers, as well as trying to figure out how different things work together, this is a path you might want to take.

Although many job descriptions state that a Computer Science Degree is required to be hired as a full-stack developer, we disagree. All you need, in our opinion, are skills and projects, which you can obtain by building projects.

References: https://www.freecodecamp.org/news/what-is-a-fullstack-developer/

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Travel Agent Job Description

A Travel Agent is a professional who assists you in planning your next vacation. They will assist clients in finding their ideal vacation. Their responsibilities include matching clients to locations and vacation hubs that they will enjoy, as well as listing activities that their clients can do while on vacation.

As a travel agent, you may manage business and leisure travel requests, as well as provide tourism-related services and package tours on behalf of our suppliers. The goal is to keep our clients satisfied and coming back for more.


  • Plan and sell transportation, lodging, insurance, and other travel-related services.
  • Work with clients to determine their needs and recommend appropriate destinations, modes of transportation, travel dates, costs, and accommodations.
  • Provide travelers with relevant information, brochures, and publications (guides, local customs, maps, regulations, events, and so on).
  • Make transportation arrangements, hotel reservations, and payment/fees.
  • To sell itinerary tour packages, use promotional techniques and promotional materials.
  • Handle any travel problems, complaints, or refunds that arise.
  • Attend travel seminars to stay current on tourism trends.
  • Enter data into our software and keep client files up to date.
    Make contact with tour operators.
  • Keep accurate statistical and financial records.
  • Meet profit and sales goals.

Required Skills

  • Proven travel agent experience
  • Excellent knowledge of computer reservations systems, GDS systems, and e-travel
  • Fluency in English is required; multilingualism is preferred
  • Strong sales and commercial awareness
  • Ability to interact, communicate, and negotiate effectively
  • Solid understanding of domestic and international travel trends

Additional requirements

  • Bachelor’s degree in tourism, hospitality or relevant field.
  • A minimum of 2 years’ experience in a similar role.
  • In-depth knowledge of domestic and foreign travel destinations.
  • Excellent sales and interpersonal skills.
  • Outstanding knowledge of the latest tourism trends.

What does a travel agent do?

When planning a vacation, travel agents assist clients with everything from transportation to accommodations. They also assist with itinerary planning to ensure that their trip is as enjoyable as possible. Agents make their clients’ lives easier while on vacation, whether it’s arranging family activities or ensuring a good hotel.

What makes a good travel agent?

Travel agents must be able to work quickly and efficiently. They work with clients who have specific travel dates in mind. This means that these professionals must be able to meet simple deadlines while remaining focused.


A travel agent assists customers in making travel arrangements. A travel agent simplifies the travel process by assisting clients in selecting a destination and presenting them with travel and hotel options. A travel agent is also familiar with local tourist attractions and can provide itineraries and tours upon a client’s arrival. Many travel agents have extensive personal travel experience or have worked on a cruise ship or on an airline. They are typically employed by travel agencies, airlines, or cruise lines to assist clients in making the most of their vacation time.

If you want to become a Travel Agent, click here.

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What is an Operations Manager?

An Operation Manger is very critical for a company or business to succeed.

An operations manager is a professional who likes to work behind the scene. This position is very significant for a company or business to succeed. The operations manager must ensure that all activities run smoothly each day. So, to say, the role includes management of the products or services of a small or big business.
In general, the operations manager should thrive to maximize methods in order to meet customer expectations. 

What is an Operations Manager?

In order to understand the role, we need to define what business operations are. Business operations are all the activities that run behind the scene and they keep the business running. Thus, operations manager is involved directly with overseeing the big picture of the organization. Responsibilities to this role include process management, methods of purchasing, accounting, human resources, organization’s inventory, and technical facilities such as IT. The person behind the role is critical in ensuring the smooth run of the business and he should have everything necessary to be effective. In some case operations manager is also called chief operating officer.

About responsibilities

This job position involves many responsibilities that vary for different businesses and industries. However, these are the most common tasks attached to the role.

  • Employees – this is a big part that an operation manager should oversee. Keeping an eye on the HR department or working closely to help solve employee issues, these are two main aspects of operations manager duties.
  • Processes – an organization uses different processes to run its daily business. The operational manager is responsible for executing and sustaining these processes.
  • Financial – it is also another big aspect of operation manager duties. The manager should either be overseeing the accounting department or working with the team to review budgets, revenue growth, and profits.
  • Inventory – this part is especially true for managers that work in retail or for a business that sells specific products or services.
  • Reporting – another segment of the responsibilities is that of reporting on how things are functioning and whether the executed methods and regulations are working or need changes.

Education of an Operations Manager

For a job position in business operations, you need to hold a bachelor’s degree in business. The degree program focuses on business fundamentals that are effective in the success of a business. Modules such as finance, budget, supply chains, and operations strategies are taught in business management undergraduate courses. The program gives to students the knowledge and experience necessary to start working as operations manager.

However, the degree alone doesn’t secure a job position as an operations manager. You need to start in a more entry-level position, even though may have a degree in business management. Once you get an entry-level job position, make your way up for an operations manager role. Another useful thing is to have a Master’s degree in business administration (MBA). This demonstrates that you have the skills in relationship that are critical to any management position. An MBA will give you the kind of knowledge and experience that are key to operations management.

Our Operations Manager course is open. Check it out.

Skills you need to acquire

Even though business and industries differ from one another, to be successful in the field, there are a few most common skills you should have:

  • Leadership – Every organization will look at you as a leader.
  • Analytic – Analyze processes and policies, and ensure they work properly for the organizations.
  • Decision-making – You will be responsible for making decisions and on behalf of the organization.
  • Strategic – You should plan and implement strategies for the organization by understanding how much vital is this responsibility.
  • Conflict management – You should be able to manage any kind of conflict that happens within your organization’s operations.

Other skills:

  • Experience in similar roles
  • Experience in budgeting and prediction
  • Brilliant communication skills
  • Exceptional organizational skills

To conclude, we would like to add these last sentences in the bottom line of this article. The average salary for an operations manager is about $67, 925 per year. The income, though, will depend on education level, experience, and geographic location. While the percentage of growth of this role is expected as low over the next years, operation managers can work just about anywhere. From banks, retail stores, and hospitals. As an operations manager, you’re needed for any organization that runs day-to-day business operations.

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Front Desk Agent Job Description

The front desk staff are the first people customers see when they arrive at the hotel.

A front desk agent, also known as a hotel front desk representative, checks clients into and out of their rooms. He/she makes sure customers have a pleasant and satisfying stay. The front desk agent is responsible for the room key distribution, checking guests’ registration information, and calculating other payments or charges during guests’ stays.

What’s the role of Front Desk Agents?

The role of front desk agents includes checking guests in and out of hotels, motels, and other lodging facilities. They help customers book their rooms both in-person and online, address any inquiries they may have, and provide them with information and recommendations about the local area.
The first people customers see when they arrive at the hotel are the front desk staff. They welcome guests, arrange all room registrations, and give more details about the hotel’s amenities. Additionally, they work with the housekeeping team to prepare the rooms for guests’ arrival. The role also includes updating the hotel’s payment and reservation records.

List of job responsibilities

  • Room reservations: in-person, phone, and online managing
  • Guest welcoming: check them in, allocate room keys, and explain the hotel’s facilities 
  • Payment arrangements
  • Guests’ Complaints: Respond and solve them in a friendly, and timely manner
  • Local attractions and amenities: Provide guests with information about local areas
  • Collaboration: Work with other staff members to ensure all rooms meet hotel standards 
  • Specialties: Arrange and take care of any special accommodation needs
  • Event assistance: Support customers with the planning of special events   
  • Organize specialized services for VIP clients 
  • Maintain updated records and registration details

Necessary skills and qualifications

To achieve a Front Desk Agent job position, one must have: 

  • A high school diploma or GED
  • Experience of working as a hotel receptionist or in similar roles
  • A good understanding of hotel reservation software
  • Understanding the travel planning websites and their operation systems
  • One year of experience in a front desk role 
  • Exceptional verbal communication and organizational skills
  • Ability to solve customers’ issues in time 
  • Convenience to work shifts, together with weekends and holidays

Education and training

While there are no set educational requirements, it is preferred that front desk agents hold a high school diploma or any equivalent. Additionally, courses in business management, hotel management, and customer service are advantageous. A degree in hotel management is always a plus. 

Find more about Front Desk Agent course.


As we understood throughout this article, front desk agents are responsible for the distribution of room keys, checking guests’ registration information, and calculating other payments or charges during guests’ stays. They help customers book their rooms both in-person and online, address any inquiries they may have, and provide them with information and recommendations. Agents should also have a good understanding of hotel reservation software, and understanding the travel planning websites’ operations systems. 

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Graphic Design: Definition, Basics, and Jobs

Graphic Design is an old term used for communication and expression through visual and textual language.

Graphic Design is an old term that we have been using it for many centuries. It is strongly connected to the field of communication and expression through visual and textual elements. In other words, it consists of ideas and messages that are conveyed into visual means, or visual ways of transmitting to the viewer our ideas, thoughts and textual-language contents. These visuals can be as simple as a small logo, or as complex as page layouts on a website. Sometimes these visual elements work as best for more complexed projects that consist of large-scale concepts such as branding and big festivals.

So, to understand what graphic design is exactly, we need first to define each word separately. It is important to have a clear idea of what the terms graphic and design mean separately. These two words don’t change much their function over time, while the term Graphic Design evolves continuously and is always expanding its means of practice.

What does the word Graphic mean?

The simple and a direct explanation of the word graph-ic comes from the Greek word graphein (γράφειν), to write or to describe. They also use it to describe the action of carving figures, creating works of art and letters into wood plates, metal plates or different surfaces that can be used as well for artistic purposes. So, it’s mainly related to the visual form of our thoughts and ideas.

What does the term Design mean?

Design is mostly a conceptual term. It is used to explain the planning or construction of an object, system, or for the implementation of an activity that relates to a prototype, product, or process. Design can be used as a verb, i.e., to design, that expresses the process of developing a design or an idea. Typical examples of designs include architectural and engineering drawings, circuit diagrams, sewing patterns and less tangible artefacts such as business process models.

So, what is Graphic Design?

It is the process of planning, creating, and communicating visual elements to create a visual identity of a company, organization, etc.
Graphic design can be broken down into two categories: web design and print design. Web design focuses on creating visual interfaces for websites such as logos and buttons. Print design focuses on creating visual interfaces for magazines and newspapers, such as book covers and advertisements.

It is a broad field that encompasses many disciplines, such as art, architecture, advertising, web design and user interface design. It involves the use of typography, illustration, and photography.

The term is also used to describe the process of creating and editing visual elements like websites, print advertisements, billboards, and other forms of communication. This can include designing logos and packaging materials as well as web-based applications, such as e-commerce sites.
Graphic designers use a variety of tools to create graphic designs that are effective in communicating their message to customers or viewers.

Basics of Graphic Design

To better understand the meaning, it is necessary to understand the elements and principles that comprise design. Elements are used in tandem or in opposition to one another to create visually appealing and impactful designs.

These graphic design elements are as follows:

  • Colors
  • Forms
  • Line
  • Shape
  • Sizes
  • Space
  • Texture

Graphic designers must also follow design principles, which are essentially a set of guidelines that assist a design in achieving effective composition. These fundamental principles contribute to the piece’s balance and stability.

These graphic design principles are as follows:

  • Balance
  • Contrast
  • Emphasis
  • Movement
  • Proportion
  • Rhythm

You’ve probably heard the expression “rules are meant to be broken,” which certainly applies in this case. However, a good graphic designer must first understand these principles before consciously breaking them.

Graphic design styles

As previously stated, there is no single meaning. It encompasses a wide range of disciplines and specializations, from print and web design to animation and motion graphics. It provides opportunities and options for people with almost any interest.
If you asked someone 30 years ago to define graphic design, they would most likely focus on print-related examples, such as magazines, movie posters, and advertisements. Now that we live in the digital age, several new types of graphic design have emerged.

Technological advancements have resulted in some of the most notable modern-day graphic design examples. Here are some examples of these types of graphic design:
Website design entails creating user-friendly and engaging web pages. The overall layout, color scheme, and navigation are all part of this.

User experience (UX) design is concerned with making a website or application simple and enjoyable to use. These designers place a premium on value, usability, adaptability, and desirability.

Motion graphics design, also known as animation, is the process of bringing visual elements to life through special effects, TV shows, video games, and movies.

Most popular Graphic Design jobs

It is a booming industry. With technological advancements introducing new types of graphic design, there has also been an emergence of new graphic design jobs. This evolution has changed the entire landscape of careers in this field.

Demand for “traditional” graphic designers who work primarily for print publishers has fallen substantially, but that doesn’t tell the whole story. Employment of graphic designers in computer systems design services is projected to grow by 24 percent through 2028, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). Much of this demand is spurred by increased businesses and organizations’ need for digital graphics and imagery as they aim to increase their digital presence.

So, with that said, what are some common graphic design job titles? We analyzed more than 10,000 job postings calling for a graphic design degree over the past year. The data helped us determine the most common job titles:

  • Graphic designer
  • User experience (UX) designer
  • Web designer
  • Art director
  • Creative director

You may have never heard of the term “graphic design” before, but chances are you’ve used it.

It is an umbrella term for creating visual representations of ideas, such as logos and packaging. It’s a necessary part of marketing, advertising and communications—and it’s a career choice that can open doors to all kinds of opportunities.

If you’re interested in getting into graphic design, there are some things you should know first: what kind of jobs and specializations exist, as well as the tools that help get the job done.


One of the most basic tools designers use is a sketchbook. Graphic designers will often sketch out ideas or rough drafts on paper before turning to a computer to complete the process. That being said, computers and design software are essential in today’s digital climate, even if you are designing for print. The type of computer you need is based on preference, but when it comes to software, Adobe products such as Photoshop, Illustrator and InDesign are mainstays in the graphic design world. If you are just beginning and don’t want to commit to the high price tag Adobe products often carry, similar free open-source.

Graphic designers are constantly inspired by the world around them, and they gain their ideas from everything from nature to their peers. So, if you’re worried that you aren’t creative enough, go outside and bounce some ideas off your friends or seek inspiration on the web. There are plenty of inspiring graphic design blogs that can help get your creative juices flowing.


What precisely is graphic design? As you’ve just discovered, there isn’t a single definition that applies to everyone. There are endless ways to use graphic design to
inspire creativity or address business issues. What graphic design means to you and your future profession is entirely up to you.
While having a creative eye is a great start, do you also naturally exhibit the other qualities of a graphic designer? 

To become one enroll to our course!

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Customer Service: Job Description

Each profession is important in its own function!

The lifetime of every business depends on so-called chain components. Each component is important in its own function. Customers are one of these components as well. Nevertheless, I will argue on the “idea of customer as king”, I personally won’t agree with it – Why so? You may have dozens of customers that buy products from your business, but when your business lack of employees, what happens? In this aspect, the employees are the king. However, this expression is abstract in its own skin. Thus, important is to approach each customer differently, in a way that gets the job done. This is my advice to everyone in the customer service department.

This article will go through how to keep every client, present or future, happy so your business may thrive. First, we need to understand about the term customer.

Who Are Customers?

A customer is somebody who receives a good, product, service, or idea. This clause may or may not include financial transactions, which leads us to the two sorts of clients.

  • Internal Clients
  • External Clients

Internal Customers

An internal customer is a client who has a direct relationship with the business. Internal customers are often members of the organization, such as stakeholders, workers, departments, or shareholders.

Every product, for example, comes with a user handbook or set of instructions. A content creation team or department is formed to generate these, which must supply the material to the packaging department. The packaging department is now the content creation team’s internal customer.

External Customers

An external client is a customer who is not a part of the firm. Anyone who buys a refrigerator, fancy suit, or software is a customer of the firm that makes it.

Joseph M. Juran, a quality management author, proposed the notion of internal customers in 1988. Since then, this approach has proven critical to achieving overall quality management across the firm. It’s also thought that a firm that can satisfy its internal consumers is more suited to serve external clients.

What Is Customer Service?

Customer service is the act of attending to a customer’s demands and resolving their difficulties. Client service begins when you connect with the customer to meet his wants and continues even after the standards have been completed. Services may be needed before, during, or after a consumer acquires a product or service.

Customer Service Characteristics

These attributes can be used to create high-quality customer service.

    • Being on time – Regardless of the service or product, you have promised the consumer time accuracy. Later-in-the-day changes or cancelations might be damaging to your and your organization’s reputation.
    • Knowing your P’s and Q’s – You must always be courteous to your consumer. Aside from the beginning and ending welcomes, sprinkle your talk with please, sir, thank you, and sorry. Show your finest side to every client.
    • Being professional – Demonstrate empathy for your customers’ difficulties while also respecting them. Never make them feel inferior because they cannot fix their own situation.
    • Creating a personal connection – You should aim to build a personal connection with the consumer. A personal touch, such as addressing the client by name, can help you gain his loyalty.
    • Always pay close attention – While the client is discussing his requirements, make a note of important issues and ask for clarification.
    • Asking appropriate questions – If you have carefully listened to the customer’s needs and have a solid understanding of your product or service, you should be able to ask the correct questions that will assist you in addressing those demands.
    • Taking charge – You should feel personally accountable for answering the customer’s questions. Never think that because you are only a representative of the team, the onus of providing service falls on the entire team.

Excellent Department

Anyone delivering customer service is only as excellent as the team or department that supports them. To give world-class service, a good customer service department is required. These are some characteristics of an excellent customer service department.

    • Customer problem repository – Every client support department should maintain a record of customer FAQs as well as the most common problems. It should be updated regularly with the most recent queries and requests.
    • Procedures for documenting – Client requests and the measures required to resolve them must be clearly defined.
    • Strong customer service tracking software – The software used to monitor service requests should record, process, and make all requests visible to all team members. This will allow for smooth servicing, even in the absence of a team member. Software should also be capable of analyzing requests and producing reports.
    • Intensive training program – After the initial introduction, customer service team members should get ongoing training to stay current on goods and services as well as customer request patterns.

Who Provides Customer Services?

A customer service provider is any person, department, or organization who accepts client requests, processes them, handles their concerns, solves problems, and works as an interface on behalf of the firm.

Customer service providers may fall under one of these groups.

    • In-house service providers – Small businesses can have in-house workers to handle customer service. Care should be made to ensure that service standards do not suffer as a result of a lack of devoted resources.
    • Large enterprises – Typically, they outsource customer service to companies that specialize in it. The primary corporation closely monitored the practices, followed by the outsourced firm.
    • Independent providers – Individuals or businesses who provide customer service using their own techniques without oversight. Using independent customer service providers is a simple approach to outsource customer support.

Whatever the sort of customer service provider, the following are some similar traits that they must possess in order to give high-quality service.

    1. The mission statement should include a commitment to delivering high-quality customer service.
    2. Everyone should set quantifiable customer service objectives.
    3. Customers’ input must be solicited regularly, and their ideas must be implemented.
    4. Recurring customer issues must be discovered and, if feasible, resolved.

I usually recommend that upper management elicit comments from customer-facing personnel in order to improve the customer experience.

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Contract Manager: All You Need to Know

Here, you will get to know about the job duties, qualifications, responsibilities, and skills required for a contract manager. In this article, we’re providing all necessary information about the contract manager job position.

What is a Contract Manager?

To begin with, the term Contract Manager is used in purchasing and procurement department. As part of the procurement department, the role of the manager is to negotiate, accept, and sign contracts with a company’s supplier of services and goods. It’s the manager’s responsibility to ensure effective contract management practices, so these can lower operational costs. Also, effective contract managements practices mean to build more efficient services and more favorable bargaining positions in the subsequent circle of negotiations. The contract manager serves as the primary point of contact for facilities and quarrel over workable solutions.

If we can divide the role into three main areas, those will be thresholds, performance sections, and refunds.

Let’s have a quick look at these three areas.

Threshold: A threshold is an upper or lower limit dependent upon what context it’s used in. In our case, a threshold is a term referring to specific currency outlay, transactions, or unit buying goals. During the negotiating process, thresholds are employed to achieve even greater discounts than the supplier would typically grant. As volume grows, the provider becomes more motivated and able to drop prices as its expenses fall.

Performance sections: This area is based on specifiable metrics critical to the business’s procedures. The goal of a performance section is to establish a mutually agreed-upon mechanism of measurement between the provider and the client. These provisions typically relate to fines or incentives, depending on the sector.

Refunds: Refund or incentive, is used to reward suppliers for meeting arranged goals. This kind of flexibility is commonly required in time-critical situations when the contract provides a normal delivery schedule, but more flexibility is necessary to satisfy business requirements.

Contract management efficiency involves tracking daily tasks, evaluating supplier performance, and checking up with the supplier. Through the contract management process, the company conceivably claims any contract benefits. Benefits of this sort could include a clause allowing for early release, additional expense cuts, or other consequences.


A contract manager manages the agreement between involved actors in a business activity. He works on both sides of the contract. In general, the contract manager is in charge of maintaining clear communication with the other party and for the execution of the contract accorded. Depending the organization, specific responsibilities may include financial reports, monitoring of contract terms, and looking after files.

Each contract is unique, and its terms are different from other contracts. There is no single contract that contains the same terms for all parties. The manager must treat each contract as a separate entity that has its own set of conditions. Once a contract is operational, the manager serves as the administrative point person until the termination of the contract.

The contract manager is also in charge of contract deviations and management change. If the vendor loses critical people or a budget change requires approval, the contract manager handles the details in order to keep track of the project. He is usually in charge of periodic contract reporting, which notifies stakeholders about the status of work accomplished under the contract.

Description of the job: example

The job description can vary according to the organization and industry. The contract manager job description that we are providing below is simply a list of regular duties and responsibilities of a manager to complete efficiently.

These include the following:

  • Creating client tenders and commercial proposals to help with new business acquisition
  • Creating and presenting project proposals
  • Consulting with clients to determine their needs
  • Creating plans, as well as budgets and timetables
  • Developing budgets and timetables with customers
  • Managing construction timelines and costs
  • Taking care of any unexpected expenses
  • Active in site meetings to monitor progress
  • Is the principal point of contact for clients, site managers, and project managers
  • Collaborating with external parties to ensure that everyone understands their roles and responsibilities
  • Ensure that building projects follow agreed-upon technical requirements
  • Activities are coordinated with technical and financial employees, subcontractors, legal teams, and client representatives
  • Supervising the billing process once a project has been completed
  • Creating, reviewing, negotiating, and carrying out a wide range of contracts covering a wide range of transactions
  • Developing and maintaining connections with suppliers, as well as serving as the single point of contact for contract-related concerns
  • Keeping track of letters and documents for current and pending contracts
  • Stakeholders are informed and educated on all contract-related concerns
  • Monitoring contracts and choosing whether to cancel them out, extend them, or renew them in the best interests of the firm
  • Any contract-related difficulties that may emerge with other parties or inside the organization must be resolved
  • Developing and modifying a wide range of client contracts
  • Maintaining and ensuring the correctness of the organization’s internal contract papers
  • Providing contract generation advice and guidance to various teams


Education, as in everything else, is the key factor in achieving the highest level in a job position. The required skills and certificates vary according to the role and company. However, the contract manager typically requires a bachelor’s degree. In some cases, employers may ask you for to be certified.


Essential skills

Technology and innovation
Contract managers must keep up with technological advances.

Control over agreements
Interpersonal skills, networking, and collaborative partnerships are essential.

Project management and communication
Communication is fundamentally tied to the project management features.

Negotiating with third parties and contractors is also the responsibility of the contact manager.

Detail oriented
Be attentive to minute issues, like as missing punctuation at the end of a phrase or skipping a word.

Steps to become a Contract Manager

  1. Earn a Bachelor’s Degree
  2. Accumulate Experiences – internships
  3. Select an Accreditation – certifications
  4. Find a certification and take the test
  5. Go for a job hunt and believe in your growing possibilities


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Finance Manager: Job Description

A multitasking role with great responsibilities

A Finance Manager helps companies to improve their financial health and meet long-term goals. All goals can be achieved by building financial reports and strategies, and someone knowledgeable about the field can do this. The primary duties include activity reports, financial forecasts, monitoring accounts, and create areas to stabilize or reduce company expenses.

What does a Finance Manager do?

A Finance Manager works closely with a business’ management and executive team. Together, they create financial plans for financial stability and make wise investments of an organization. They also keep an eye in to the market trends and analyze potential financial opportunities to determine if certain financial strategies, decisions or investments are in the best interest of the company.

Let’s have a look at some primary duties.

  • Management
    1. Maintenance of the system documenting accounting policies and practices
    2. Management of subcontracted functions
    3. Supervise the treasury department and its operations, including the design of a strategy adequate for achieving the decided goals and objectives
  • Management of funds
    1. Managing the company’s budget to make sure there is enough money to cover ongoing operating and capital investment needs
    2. Predict cash flow positions, related borrowing needs, and probable funds for investment
    3. Analyze and discover ways to reduce financial risks associated with the interest borrowing rates, and foreign exchange ranks
    4. Helps in selecting the suitable capital structures
    5. Planning stock and loan funding
    6. Maintain banking contacts
    7. Invest funds
  • Financial Analysis
    1. Conducting cost reduction analysis in all parts of the organization
    2. Engaging in benchmarking researches to establish possibilities of operational improvements
    3. Reporting key issues to management of competitors’ performance
    4. Interpreting financial results and advice for improvement strategies
    5. Engaging in goal costing operation and create products in relation to programmed price areas
    6. Assisting the product pricing process
    7. Reporting business metrics to the management
    8. Managing processes of the capital budgeting that are based on constraint analysis and discounted cash flow analysis
    9. Creating other analysis and reports as required by the management


  • Accounting
    1. Management of the company’s budget and its arrangements
    2. Report to management on variances from the decided budget
    3. Assistance in creating overall strategic directions
    4. Recommendation on the corporate credit policy


The finance manager should hold a bachelor’s degree in finance or accounting. Five and more years of experience are also required for a finance manager to have by most companies in the world. Besides, having excellent communication skills is essential, and candidates should have an expertise in understanding of electronic spreadsheets.

>> Check the course here!

List of qualifications

    • BS Degree in Finance or Accounting. Advanced
    • Minimum of 5-7 years of relevant experience
    • 5+ years of combined Accounting/Finance/Financial Systems experience
    • Ability to manage multiple priorities in a fast-paced work environment
    • Customer service-oriented attitude and leadership capability
    • Advanced use of MS Office Suite, ability to quickly learn various in-house software applications
    • Strong analytical skills

Valuable skills and experiences

    • Exceptional communication skills
    • Post-Secondary Education in Hospitality or related field
    • Experience in reservation or front office management with a high call volume
    • Strong customer service and multitasking ability
    • Knowledge of Sun, iScala, Opera Property Management System, and able to operate other electronic systems
    • Attention to details and problem-solving skills

Last thought

As you can see, the finance management position is a kind of complicated role with a high level of responsibilities. A finance manager should be able to manage, process, evaluate, advice, and create strategies, and all related to a company’s budget and investment funds.

The professional, after the finance manager position, is responsible for financial procedures and reports necessary for an organization to reduce costs and track continuously its financial stability. The finance manager should be educated in finance, accounting and must have vast experience in other areas such as hospitality management, front office management, and excellent analytical skill including excellent knowledge of electronic operational systems.

Ref: Online Sources 

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Front-End Developer

That creates layouts for applications and digital interaction using JavaScript, HTML, CSS, etc.

Front-end Developer – Introduction

Related to computer science development, we have developers that work mainly with code and who build everything that’s visible in web apps and sites. The person after the creation of layouts or schema of applications is called a front-end developer.

A Front-End Developer uses sorts of frameworks or packages, such as jQuery, Angular JS/JS 2, React/BackboneJS, etc. These frameworks are based on the fundamental HTML and CSS that form also the foundation of the front-end development role. By using JavaScript, HTML, and CSS as basic languages, front-end development is said to be the practice of transforming the usual data into the graphical elements viewed by the end-user.

Check our course in Front-end Developer.

What describes a good Front-end Developer?

A good and skilled front-end developer is someone:

  1. That has knowledge about what kind of development pattern including visual layout will be amiable by people largely. He/she makes use of CMS (Content Management Systems, and others like WordPress, Wireframing, etc.
  2. Who’s skilled in Cross-browser testing. Also, is skilled in testing between various platforms and devices, accessibility testing, units, etc.
  3. Who knows about search engine optimization (SEO) and SEMs, and how to interact with the interface designs.
  4. That has interpersonal capability to understand an organization’s strategy, character of the role, determined to deliver what is asked, and that can provide a perfect blend between strategy and front-end developer’s duties.

So, to state it shortly, a front-end developer should implement visual and interactive elements to make the user engaging easier and delightfully.

Skill required for the role

If you want to become a front-end developer, you’ll need to master the so-called languages such as HTML, CSS, and JavaScript. A developer should also be well knowledgeable about the processing part, particularly with Cascading Style Sheets.

Of course, same as other developers, you should know how to write the code and be logically working in the project environment. Therefore, you’d have some experience in working with any version of controlling tools, i.e., GIT Subversion; be knowledgeable about continuous integration and continuous deployment tools, for example, TeamCity or Jenkins; and, also have some experience in various build tools such as Maven, Ant, etc. So, the ideal developer is not just one who is an expert in technology, but also the one who’s highly organized and works with an agile mindset.

Why a Front-end Developer?

Imagine a website about photographic cameras and you want to buy one but not be able to view the picture of the product with only having some look at it in some form of post APIs. As a normal user, you would be required to have some normal skills just to do simple actions. That’s why we need a front-end developer to give shape and visual to all that is happening at the backend. Here comes into play a front-end developer that gives life to the visual aspect of web apps or sites.


Front-end development is a technology that makes all happenings at the backend visually appearing so every user can interact easily between each task. Therefore, to make these happen, one must grow professionally, have an eye for details, and build technological knowledge around the position’s field.

Honestly, a front-end developer is the one that completes the web development, and this will not change for a long time.


Article ref: online sources

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